Antarctica represents the southmost land on Earth. It is the fifth-largest continent, with around 98% of the territory being covered by ice. The continent is a desert. However there are many native organisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, and certain animals (mites, nematodes, penguins and seals)
Antarctica is considered the coldest, driest, and windiest continent. There are only about 135 permanent inhabitants, and from 1,000 to 5,000 resident throughout the year at the research stations. The continent is governed by the member states of the Antarctic Treaty System (the treaty counts 53 parties at present), which prohibits military activities, mineral mining, nuclear explosions, nuclear waste disposal
At present, there is no economic activity on the continent, except for fishing and small-scale tourism. Both these economic activities are based outside Antarctica.
Mineral resources such as coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, copper, chromium, nickel, gold exist on the continent, but they are not found in large enough quantities. These are scientific researches and not commercial activities which constitute the primary human activity in Antarctica.
Antarctica's whole territory is covered by ice and the average temperature is - 56 degrees.
As a result, there is no permanent population on the continent, as well as agriculture or other economic activity. Uninhabitable conditions make economic activity highly limited.
The largest economic activity in Antarctica is the capture and offshore trading of fish.
The fisheries of Antarctica target three main species: Patagonian and Antarctica Toothfish, Mackerel Icefish, and Krill.