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Macedonia Exports

artice info

Macedonia is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is the largest and second most populous Greek region, dominated by mountains in the interior and the port cities of Thessaloniki (or Salonika) and Kavala on its southern coastline. Macedonia is part of Northern Greece, together with Thrace and sometimes Thessaly and Epirus.

Macedonia is one of Greece's wealthiest regions in natural sources. A big variety of goods like olives, rice, wine, cheese, wheat, tobacco, honey and raw material as well is produced and exported in and out of Greece. Macedonia like the rest of Greece imports some goods like some kind of fruits, coffee, fibers etc. 

In Thessaloniki, the second largest city of Greece is situated one of the largest ports of the Mediterranean and through this port Macedonia manages millions of imports and exports. Macedonia's largest industry though is tourism mostly based to the Halkidiki peninsula and Pieria, the island of Thasos and the areas of Kastoria and Florina.

Republic of Macedonia is a well known as exporter of tobacco, vine, brandy, grapes exporter. Also, peppers (paprika), tomatoes, apples, cucumbers, watermelons. Thirty years ago, Macedonia used to export cotton and natural silk too, as well as legal opium (alkaloids). 

Today, Macedonia exports steel and iron, and produces its own copper, silver and gold. 

Macedonia exports Welland tree timbers, lamb meet, and very expensive Shepard dogs - Sharpening ("Macedonian Shepard dog, graved on coin of one denar). 

Macedonia's top exports:

  1. Reaction and Catalytic Products
  2. Ferroalloys
  3. Centrifuges
  4. Refined Petroleum
  5. Hot-Rolled Iron
  6. Raw Tobacco
  7. Non-Knit Clothes
  8. Other Small Iron Pipes
  9. Coated Flat-Rolled Iron
  10. Packaged Medicaments

 

Top 5 Export destinations of Macedonia

  • Germany
  • Serbia 
  • Bulgaria 
  • Italy 
  • Czech Republic 

 

Macedonia Imports

artice info

Macedonia, officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991.

A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia is bordered by Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. It constitutes approximately the northwestern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and a smaller portion in southwestern Bulgaria. The country's capital is Skopje, with 506,926 inhabitants according to the 2002 census. 

Macedonia imports crude oil, platinum and platinum alloys, motor vehicles and electricity. Main imports partners of Macedonia are Germany, UK, Bulgaria, Italy, Greece, Germany, Italy, the United States, Slovenia, Austria and Turkey and Russia. 

 Macedonia's top imports:

  1. Refined Petroleum
  2. Platinum
  3. Crude Petroleum
  4. Cars
  5. Nickel Ore
  6. Hot-Rolled Iron
  7. Packaged Medicaments
  8. Petroleum Gas
  9. Light Pure Woven Cotton
  10. Light Rubberized Knitted Fabric

 

 

Customs requirements of Macedonia

Macedonian Customs Contacts:

Website: http://www.customs.gov.mk/  

Email: info@customs.gov.mk  

Telephone: +38923116188

Fax: 02 3 237 832

Address: “Lazar Licenoski” 13, 1000 Skopje

 

As one of the Western Balkan countries and a candidate for EU membership, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has signed a stabilisation and association agreement with the EU.

Macedonia stabilisation and association agreement (2001) focuses on liberalising trade in goods, aligning rules on EU practice and protecting intellectual property. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been a member of the World Trade Organisation since 2003.

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is also a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), which sets uniform trade rules across the whole of South Eastern Europe (Western Balkans plus Moldova). The EU is not a party to CEFTA, but supports the process. Macedonia also benefits from EU autonomous trade preferences (until the end of 2015), allowing nearly all exports to enter the EU without customs duties or limits on quantities. Only wine, baby beef and certain fisheries products enter the EU under preferential tariff quotas.

Key industries of the country are manufacturing, trade and agriculture. The country’s openness to trade is relatively high, with total trade (exports and imports of goods and services) amounting for some 100% of GDP. The main export commodities are textiles and steel. About 55% of total trade is EU trade. 

 

The tax exemptions on imports includes:

  • Trade of goods which are exempt from VAT in the country without the right of deduction, as well as gold and other noble metals towards central banks, aircraft which are used in international air commercial traffic, goods which serves for equipping of the aircrafts and goods for settling of the direct needs of the aircrafts;
  • Goods that within the transit customs procedure are moving from one place to another within the customs area of the Republic of Macedonia;
  • Goods that are re-imported in the unchanged condition as at their temporary export;
  • Goods that are imported by the heads of foreign states and representatives of the heads of foreign states, as well as members of their escort for their official purposes and for personal use; by international and interstate organizations based in the Republic of Macedonia for their official purposes; by diplomatic and consular offices of foreign countries in the Republic of Macedonia for their official purposes; by heads of foreign diplomatic missions in the Republic of Macedonia and diplomatic personnel and their closer family members for their personal use; by consular staff of foreign consular offices in the Republic of Macedonia and members of their closer families for their personal use and by the staff of foreign diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Macedonia for household objects imported within 12 months from the date of their arrival in the Republic of Macedonia;
  • Goods that are placed on insight to the customs authority (temporarily stored goods); goods that are imported into a free zone or free warehouse and goods that are placed under the customs warehousing procedure or customs procedure on import for enriching according the system for delayed payment. The exemption can be realized if the goods are not released in free trade i.e. are not intended for final consumption;
  • Goods intended for sale in duty free shops at airports, open for international air traffic, under the condition passengers to export them as luggage in permitted quantities in other countries by plane;
  • Passengers arriving from abroad, for items for their personal needs during the journey abroad (personal luggage);
  • Domestic passengers for other items of small value that are imported from abroad, which are not of a commercial nature, except for tobacco and tobacco products, alcohol and alcoholic beverages, as well as perfumes and toilet waters;
  • Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia and foreign citizens for small value items of non-commercial nature sent from abroad by individuals, except tobacco and tobacco products, alcohol and alcoholic beverages, perfumes and toilet waters;
  • Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia and foreign citizens for medications for personal use that are carried with them or are receiving them in shipments from abroad;
  • Drivers of motor vehicles and motorcycles, for fuel and oil that are placed in tanks installed by the factory on the motor vehicles and motorcycles;
  • Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia and foreign citizens for personal items that they have inherited abroad, except alcohol and alcoholic beverages, tobacco and tobacco products, commercial motor vehicles, items for use in conducting trade or professional activity that were used by the deceased person in conducting trade or professional activity, stocks of raw materials and finished or semi-finished products and live animals and agricultural products that are exceeding the quantities appropriate for usual family needs;
  • Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia, who live in the border area, for plant and animal products (items) obtained on their property in the border area of a neighboring country, as well as for offspring and other products obtained from the animals that they have on those properties for field work, pasture or wintering;
  • Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia and foreign citizens for medals, trophies, monuments and similar items of symbolic nature obtained abroad on competitions, exhibitions and events of international significance, except alcoholic beverages, tobacco and tobacco products;
  • Scientists, writers and artists for their own works brought from abroad;
  • Government bodies or registered humanitarian or charity organizations for the goods that they are importing free, and which are intended for free distribution to the victims of force of nature or other types of disasters or for goods which are remaining in ownership of those organizations, and which are intended for use by the victims of these disasters. The exemption does not apply to materials and equipment for reconstruction of the areas hit by force of nature or other disaster. The exemption applies only to organizations that keep appropriate accounting and are allowing the competent authorities to supervise their operations and which, if necessary, offer a guarantee as an instrument for securing of the payment;
  • Registered humanitarian or charity organizations, for goods which are imported free of charge from abroad for conducting of their humanitarian activities. The exemptions do not apply on alcoholic beverages, tobacco and tobacco products, as well as motor vehicles (except ambulance vehicles for transport of sick and injured persons). The exemption applies only to the organization that keeps appropriate accounting records and provides the authorities to supervise their operations and which, if necessary, offer a guarantee as an instrument for securing of the payment;
  • Public museums and public art galleries, for donated collections and art objects;
  • Public libraries, for donated librarian material;
  • Public archives, donated reproduced archive material;
  • Therapeutic substances of human origin, reagents for determining blood groups and types of tissues;
  • Laboratory animals and biological or chemical substances intended for research;
  • Samples of goods of small value, which according to the type and quantity cannot be used for any other purpose;
  • Goods intended for use on fairs, trade exhibitions or similar events, except alcohol and alcoholic beverages, tobacco and tobacco products and fuels, whether liquid, firm or gas;
  • Goods that are imported for testing, research or analyzing, except goods used for analyzing or testing for improving of the sale;
  • Trademarks, models or designs and their supporting documents, as well as applications for recognition of patents of inventions or similar, which are submitted to organizations for protection of copyrights or industrial property rights;
  • Touristic promotional material intended for distribution free of charge and whose main purpose is to present the foreign touristic offer;
  • Pharmaceutical products for health or veterinary purposes which are used at international sporting events organized in the Republic of Macedonia;
  • Materials needed for fastening and protection of the goods during the transport;
  • Base and food for cattle and animals during their transport;
  • Materials for the construction, maintaining or decorating monuments of victims of war or cemetery for victims of war;
  • Body coffins, burial urns with ashes and funerary objects;
  • Small value shipments delivered from abroad for recipients in the country which a total value per shipment does not exceed the amount of 22 euros in denars. The exemptions do not apply on tobacco and tobacco products, alcohol and alcoholic beverages, as well as perfumes and toilet waters;
  • Documents which are sent free of charge to the public authorities;
  • Publications of foreign governments and official international bodies intended for distribution free of charge;
  • Items that are submitted as proofs or for similar purposes to the courts or other authorities;
  • Examples of signatures and printed circulars concerning to signatures which are sent as part of the usual exchange of information between public services or between banks;
  • Official printed materials sent to the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia;
  • Reports, statements, notes, prospects, application forms and other documents prepared by companies registered abroad and sent to the owners or holders of stocks issued by those companies;
  • Files, archives, printed forms and other documents which are used in international meetings, conferences or congresses, as well as reports of these meetings;
  • Plans, technical drawings, drafts, descriptions and other similar documents imported for obtaining or fulfilling orders abroad or for participation in competitions held in the customs area;
  • Documents that are used for comparing of exams in the customs area, which are conducted by institutions based abroad;
  • Printed forms which are used as official documents in the international trade of vehicles or goods, within the framework of the international conventions;
  • Printed forms, labels, tickets and similar documents sent by the foreign transporters or hotels to travel agencies based in the customs territory;
  • Printed forms and tickets, freight notes, and other commercial or office documents which have already been used;
  • Official printed forms from foreign countries or international bodies and printed materials which are in accordance with international standards sent for distribution by foreign associations to certain associations based in the customs area;
  • Photos, slides and standard pads for photos, whether they are subtitled, sent to news agencies or publishers of newspapers or magazines;
  • Goods which as gifts are received from foreign donors, as well as imported goods bought with funds received as a gift from the state bodies, municipalities and the City of Skopje and public legal entities;
  • Goods allocated for a project that is financed with funds received on the basis of a contract for donation concluded between the Republic of Macedonia and foreign donors, if the agreement stipulates that taxes will not be paid with the received funds with the funds received. Among the projects financed in the framework of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), which is implemented under decentralized management, tax exemption applies also to the portion of funds from the national co-financing provided from the Budget of the Republic of Macedonia and from their own resources or from other sources of funding;
  • Goods that are temporarily imported with full exemption from customs duties (means of transport, personal objects and goods for sports purposes imported by travelers, materials for help in cases of disasters, medical, surgical and laboratory equipment, animals, goods for border areas use, media – sound carrier, picture or data, advertising materials, professional equipment, pedagogic material and scientific equipment, packages, molds, matrices, drawings, sketches, models, instruments for measuring, checking and testing and other similar items, special tools and instruments, goods for performing testing or which is subject of testing, samples of goods, supplementary products, goods for exhibitions, fairs, meetings and similar events or sales, spare parts, accessories and equipment and other goods which are temporary imported or imported in cases in which there is no economic impact).

 

Export procedure   

Export of goods from Macedonia is usually free and without restrictions. Export duty is paid only in exceptional cases for protection purposes. In certain cases the exporters are faced with the so-called quantity quotas (mostly for agricultural products).

During the export procedure, the Customs authority issues approval allowing domestic goods to exit the customs area. The export includes completion of formalities for export and exit of goods, application of trade policy measures and payment of export duties, if prescribed. The export may be carried out by the exporter or by its representative, with a relevantauthorization granted by the exporter.

Export of goods is implemented in accordance with the Customs Code (Official Gazette 39/05; 04/08, 158/10 and 44/11) and the Regulation on Customs Code Implementation.    

Documents, certificates, declarations used during export procedure   

For the purposes of the export of goods from the Republic of Macedonia, the following documents have to be submitted:

1. Customs Declaration 
The customs declaration is the primary document lodged in the case of the export of goods. When a customs declaration covers goods that are classified under two or more tariff codes of the Customs Tariff, the data relating to each tariff code shall be deemed as constituting a separate declaration. The official form for the customs declaration shall be the Single Administrative Document (SAD). The content of the form is laid down by the Customs Code Implementing Regulation (“Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia 66/05). The SAD is used for carrying out the import and export customs procedures. The Rulebook on the completion of the SAD sets forth the sub-sets of the SAD to be used in the case of export of goods, and provides a detailed description of how to complete the form. The single administrative document is lodged in written or electronic form to the competent customs authority.

2. Invoice of sale 
The invoice of sale is a document proving that goods have been purchased abroad. The invoice is issued by the immediate seller in the country or by the agent who brokered the sale. In case of a purchase through an agent, the invoice should clearly state the purchase price of the goods and the brokerage provision charged by the agent, or two invoices should be provided: the seller’s invoice as a proof of the price paid, and the invoice by the agent for the brokerage commission paid. The Customs Administration of the Republic of Macedonia recognizes only original invoices – pro-forma invoices and copies of the original documents shall not be accepted.

There is no prescribed standardized format for the invoice, but it must contain the following elements: heading "Invoice", number and date, reference to related documents (contract number, pro forma invoice, delivery notes, etc.), name and address of the seller, name of the recipient, description of the goods (according to the tariff classification, commercial/trade denomination and/or technical code and name), unit price and total price, approved discounts and relevant amounts, parity (terms of delivery), unit measure of the goods, gross and net weight, country of origin, signature and stamp of the seller who issued the invoice. In addition to the above, the invoice may also contain other elements that describe in greater detail the qualitative and quantitative properties of the goods. The seller and the buyer guarantee and are held liable for the credibility of the data stated in the invoice. The invoice may be written on computer, typewriter or hand-written. In the case of an invoice written by hand, it should be legible and clear so as to be acceptable as a valid document.

3. Transport document
The transport document is issued by the carrier that is transporting the goods. The document should contain the following elements: heading “Transport Document", date and number, name and address of the freight forwarder, name and address of the salesperson in the Republic of Macedonia, name and address of the buyer or representative (agent), description of the goods (according to the tariff classification, commercial/trade denomination and/or technical code and name), unit measure, quantity, unit price and total price, net and gross weight of the goods and total net and gross weight of the transport vehicle, signature and stamp of the freight forwarder. The international road transport documents may be CMR or TIR licenses or other licenses by an authorized freight forwarder containing the elements stated above. Macedonia is a country signatory of the TIR and ATA Carnet Conventions. In the case of transport of the goods by air or by railway, air or railway bill of lading is provided, respectively. During the Customs Procedure, the export goods must be sealed by the competent customs body.

4. Bill of Lading or Cargo Manifest
The bill of lading or the cargo manifest usually accompanies the transport documents and contains a detailed description of the goods and their packaging. In case of an export of a single type of goods, there is no need for a bill of lading, but the description within the invoice or transport document shall be sufficient.

5. Certificate of origin of the goods
The certificate of origin of the goods is not a mandatory document for the export of goods. The Certificate is necessary if the agreements concluded between the Republic of Macedonia and other countries have prescribed for the import in those countries to have approval for preferential tariff treatment of goods originating from the Republic of Macedonia. The Competent body for issuing of certificates for Macedonian origin is the Chamber of Commerce of the Republic of Macedonia. Мore information regarding the origin of the goods are provided in the relevant section on the site.

6. Veterinary or Phyto-Sanitary Certificates
In the case of export of livestock, goods of animal origin and products thereof, as well as seeds, plants and related products, the goods shall mandatorily be accompanied by veterinary or phyto-sanitary certificates. More information concerning the veterinary and phyto-sanitary certificates are provided in the relevant section on the site.

Special conditions for export procedure    

Export permits
The export of specific products requires obtaining export licenses and authorizations issued by the competent authorities (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Culture, etc.) The goods that shall be subject to export licenses are listed in detail in the Decision for Classification of Goods to Import and Export.  

 

Import procedure   

By the import procedure, the customs authority authorizes the release of foreign goods in free circulation in the Republic of Macedonia. The import includes completion of formalities for import and entry, application of trade policy measures and payment of import duties and other levies, in accordance with the regulations. The import may be carried out by the importer or by its representative, with a relevant authorization granted by the importer.

Import of goods is implemented in accordance with the Customs Code (Official Gazette 39/05; 04/08, 158/10 and 44/11) and the Regulation on Customs Code Implementation.

By the import procedure, the customs authority authorizes the release of foreign goods in free circulation in the Republic of Macedonia. The import includes completion of formalities for import and entry, application of trade policy measures and payment of import duties and other levies, in accordance with the regulations. The import may be carried out by the importer or by its representative, with a relevant authorization granted by the importer.

Import of goods is implemented in accordance with the Customs Code (Official Gazette 39/05, 04/08, 158/10 and 44/11) and the Regulation on Customs Code Implementation.    

Documents, certificates, declarations used during import procedure   

For the purposes of the import of goods into the Republic of Macedonia, the following documents have to be submitted:

1. Customs Declaration
The customs declaration is the primary document lodged in the case of the import of goods. When a customs declaration covers goods that are classified under two or more tariff codes of the Customs Tariff, the data relating to each tariff code shall be deemed as constituting a separate declaration. The official form for the customs declaration shall be the Single Administrative Document (SAD). The contents of the form are laid down by the Regulation on Customs Code Implementation ("Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia 66/05). The SAD is used for carrying out the import and export customs procedures. The Rulebook on the completion of the SAD sets forth the sub-sets of the SAD to be used in the case of import of goods, and provides a detailed description of how to complete the form. The single administrative document is lodged in writing or electronically to the competent customs authority.

2. Purchase Invoice
The purchase invoice is a document proving the purchase of the goods abroad. The invoice is issued by the immediate foreign seller or by the agent who brokered the sale. In case of a purchase through an agent, the invoice should clearly state the purchase price of the goods and the brokerage provision charged by the agent, or two invoices should be provided: the seller's invoice as a proof of the price paid, and the invoice by the agent for the brokerage commission paid. The Customs Administration of the Republic of Macedonia recognizes only original invoices – pro-forma invoices and copies of the original documents shall not be accepted. Under exceptional circumstances, when the importer requires time to obtain the original documents, the goods may be imported upon providing a security for the payment of the customs debt that may be incurred by the import.

There is no prescribed standardized format for the invoice, but it must contain the following elements: heading "Invoice", number and date, reference to related documents (contract number, pro forma invoice, delivery notes, etc.), name and address of the seller, name of the recipient (if the recipient is not the declarant), description of the goods (according to the tariff classification, commercial/trade denomination and/or technical code and name), unit price and total price, approved discounts and relevant amounts, parity (terms of delivery), unit measure of the goods, gross and net weight, country of origin, signature and stamp of the seller who issued the invoice. In addition to the above, the invoice may also contain other elements that describe in greater detail the qualitative and quantitative properties of the goods. The seller and the buyer guarantee and are held liable for the credibility of the data stated in the invoice. The invoice may be written on computer, typewriter or hand-written. In the case of an invoice written by hand, it should be legible and clear so as to be acceptable as a valid document.

3. Transport Document
The transport document is issued by the carrier that transports the goods. The document should contain the following elements: heading "Transport Document", date and number, name and address of the carrier, name and address of the buyer in the Republic of Macedonia, name and address of the foreign seller or representative (agent), description of the goods (according to the tariff classification, commercial/trade denomination and/or technical code and name), unit measure, quantity, unit price and total price, net and gross weight of the goods and total net and gross weight of the transport vehicle, signature and stamp of the carrier. The international road transport documents may be CMR or TIR licenses or other licenses by an authorized freight forwarder containing the elements stated above. Macedonia is a country signatory of the TIR and ATA Carnet Conventions. In the case of transport of the goods by air or by railway, air or railway bill of lading is provided, respectively.

4. Bill of Lading or Cargo Manifest
The bill of lading or the cargo manifest usually accompanies the transport documents and contains a detailed description of the goods and their packaging. In case of an import of a single type of goods, there is no need for a bill of lading, but the description within the invoice or transport document shall be sufficient.

5. Certificate of Origin
The certificate of origin is not a mandatory document for the import of goods. It shall be required if the agreements that the Republic of Macedonia concluded with other countries provide for the authorization of a preferential tariff treatment of goods imported from those countries. The certificate of origin should be issued by a competent authority in the relevant country. More information concerning the origin of goods is provided in the relevant section below.

6. Veterinary and Phyto-Sanitary Certificates
In the case of import of livestock, goods of animal origin and products thereof, as well as seeds, plants and related products, the goods shall mandatorily be accompanied by veterinary or phyto-sanitary certificates issued by the competent authorities of the country of import. More information concerning the veterinary and phyto-sanitary certificates are provided in the relevant section below.   

Special conditions for import procedure   

Import Licences

The import of specific products requires obtaining import licenses and authorizations issued by the competent authorities (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Culture, etc.) The goods that shall be subject to import licenses are listed in detail in the Decision for Classification of Goods to Import and Export.

 

Sources:

http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/the_former_yugoslav_republic_of_macedonia/economical_profile_en.htm 

http://www.ujp.gov.mk/en/vodic/category/983 

http://www.ceftatransparency.com/tradeportal/Macedonia/en/Import/ 

http://www.businessfirst.com.mt/en/running/import-export-regulations