The United Kingdom has a partially regulated market economy. London is one of the three "command centers" of the global economy (alongside New York City and Tokyo).
The automotive industry is a significant part of the UK manufacturing sector and employs over 800,000 people, with a turnover of some 52 billion, generating 26.6 billion of exports.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 1.6% of the labor force (535,000 workers). Around two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one-third to arable crops. Farmers are subsidized by the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
The United Kingdom mainly exports machinery and transport equipment, manufactured products, chemical products, mineral fuels, lubricants, vehicles, gems, precious metals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, medical equipment, aircraft, spacecraft, plastics, beverages.
Main export partners of UK are the United States, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Ireland.
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining and the UK has been a net importer of energy since 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output.
The United Kingdom has the fifth-largest national economy (and second-largest in Europe) measured by nominal GDP and tenth-largest in the world (and second-largest in Europe). The UK has been the fastest growing economy in the G7 for 3 consecutive years as of October 2015. In 2014 the UK was the ninth-largest exporter in the world and the fifth-largest importer, and had the second largest stock of inward foreign direct investment and the second-largest stock of outward foreign direct investment. The UK is one of the world's most globalised economies. The UK economy comprises (in descending order of size) the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
U.K. main import partners are Germany, China, United States, Netherlands and France.
United Kingdom Customs Contacts
Address: Freepost NAT22785, CARDIFF, CF14 5GX, United Kingdom
The United Kingdom or Britain is a country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. It includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, also borderd by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Celtic Sea. The country is a member of the European Union, International Chamber of Commerce, World Customs Organization (WCO), World Trade Organization and many other international organizations.
The UK is part of the harmonised trade system of the EU and importing and exporting are covered by EC Regulations.
A Common External Tariff (CET) is applicable to other countries.
The European Community has created the Binding Tariff Information (BTI) system as a tool to obtain the correct tariff classification for goods for import or export. Before shipping any goods, it is recommended to obtain a written BTI customs duty ruling from The HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC).
Import licences are required for a number of items including:
The licensing requirement may also depend on the country of origin of the product.
Imports of food and agricultural products from outside the EU covered by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP goods) are often subject to customs duty and quotas and may require a licence or certificate.
The Food Standards Agency (FSA) provides information on importing food from outside the EU.
Trade with certain countries is forbidden or restricted in accordance with UN, EU or OSCE sanctions.
Product certification, labelling and packaging
Packaging must meet all EU and UK requirements. To reduce the impact of packaging on the environment, the EU has legislation concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste.
The CE mark is a mandatory conformity marking for certain products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).
All labelling and information directives of the European Council must be met, as well as local and national regulations.
Food information and labelling legislation must comply with EU legislation and is enforced through the Food Labelling Regulations 1996 (FLR).
For organic produce, EU legislation requires that imported organic food from third countries be produced to the same standards as that from the UK or EU.
Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI): An EORI number is unique throughout the European Community. This number is used in all communications with any EC customs authorities. The implementation of EORI in the UK replaced the previous customs trader identification system, TURN. All UK EORI numbers start with the letters GB.
In order to obtain an EORI number, you must submit an application form.
There are no prescribed forms and a minimum of two copies are required. Different methods of payment may require additional copies.
The invoice must include:
Separate certificates of origin are not mandatory but may be required depending on the terms or method of payment or as documentary proof of origin for certain goods.
Bill of lading
No special requirements, a minimum of two original copies are required and additional copies are required for customs if goods are transhipped en route.
Not obligatory, but simplifies clearance if a variety of goods are packed in different cases.
Certificate of insurance
Not obligatory unless quotation was CIF. Useful for valuation in case of disputes.